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1st Kotor International Maritime Conference

The Lead Partner, University of Patras, participated in the 1st Kotor International Maritime Conference on 26–27 November 2021 in Kotor, Montenegro. University of Patras, presented its research results about “Agriculture and Eutrophication: Impact and Best Practice”.

Below you can find the abstract of the paper.

 Agriculture and eutrophication: Impact and best practice


1 – Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras,

2 – Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras,

3 – Department of Civil Engineering, University of Patras,


Toxic pollutants from land-based sources are found in both fresh and marine waters, ranging from agricultural nutrients and industrial chemicals such as organic compounds and heavy metals to personal-care products and pharmaceuticals. Global environmental problems are associated with excess nutrients, including eutrophication, coastal hypoxic zones and nitrate contaminated groundwater. Eutrophication is the over-enrichment of aquatic or terrestrial resources and is usually caused by land-based human activities, including the use of reactive nitrogen-based artificial fertilizers.

This paper describes the linked agriculture-eutrophication issue in which everyday farming activities such as tilling and ploughing, disposing of slurries and farmyard manures, and the use of pesticides, veterinary medicines and fertilizers can give rise to contamination of soil and of water supplies. This impact is characterized by organic and inorganic contaminants that mainly originate with dissolved contents of fertilizers, chemical runoff (pesticides), urban cleaning agents, human waste, livestock manure and nutrients, and is a major challenge for downstream users. The paper reviews the literature on such impact and defines baseline and best practices at European and global level.

KEYWORDS: Blue growth, eutrophication, baseline, best practices, agriculture